Unit One Education and Discipline
Unit Two The Marks of an Educated Man
Unit Three In Defense of Elitism
Unit Four Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts
Unit Five Some American Types
Unit Six Boredom: The Most Prevalent American Disease
Unit Seven Simplicity
Unit Eight The Future of Reading
Unit Nine Utopian Techniques
Unit Ten My Wood
Unit Eleven Selected Snobberies
Unit Twelve What to Listen for in Music
Unit Thirteen The Epoch of the Secular City
Unit Fourteen How Much Is "Enough"?
Unit Fifteen Beauty
Unit Sixteen On Genius and Originality
Translation of Selected Sentences
1 While all the major social changes in post-war America reflect egalitarianism of some sort， no social evolution has been more willfully egalitarian than opening the academy. Half a century ago， a high school diploma was significant credential， and college was a privilege for the few. Now high school graduation is virtually automatic for adolescents outside the ghettos and barrios， and college has become a normal way station in the average person's growing up， no longer a mark of distinction or proof of achievement. A college education is these days a mere rite of passage， a capstone to adolescent party time.
2 Some 63% of all American high school graduates now go on to some form of further education， according to the Department of Commerce's Statistical Abstract of the United States and the bulk of those continuing students attain at least an associate's degree. Nearly 30% of high school graduates ultimately receive a four-year baccalaureate degree. A quarter or so of the population may seem， to egalitarian eyes， a small and hence elitist slice. But by world standards this is inclusiveness at its most extreme - and its most peculiarly American.
3 For all the socialism of British or French public policy and for all the paternalism of the Japanese， those nations restrict university training to a much smaller percentage of their young， typically lO% to 15%. Moreover， they and other First World nations tend to carry the elitism over into judgments about precisely which institution one attends. They rank their universities， colleges and technical schools along a prestige hierarchy and much more rigidly gradated and judged by standards much more widely accepted - than Americans ever impose
on their jumble of public and private institutions.
4 In the sharpest divergence from American values， these other countries tend to separate the college-bound from the quotidian masses in early adolescence， with scant hope for a second chance. For them， higher education is logically confined to those who displayed the most aptitude for lower education.
5 The opening of the academy's doors has imposed great economic costs on the American people while delivering dubious benefits to many of the individuals supposedly being helped. The total bill for higher education is about $ 150 billion per year， with almost two-thirds of that spent by public institutions run with taxpayer funds. Private colleges and universities also spend the public's money. They get grants for research and the like， and they serve as a conduit for subsidized student loans - many of which are never fully repaid.
President Clinton refers to this sort of spending as an investment in human capital. If that is so， it seems reasonable to ask whether the investment pays a worthwhile rate of return. At its present size， the American style of mass higher education probably ought to be judged a mistake - and one based on a giant lie.
6 Why do people go to college? Mostly to make money. This reality is acknowledged in the mass media， which are forever running stories and charts showing how much a college degree contributes to lifetime income ( with the more sophisticated publications very occasionally noting the counterweight costs of tuition paid and income forgone during the years of full-time study. )
7 But the equation between college and wealth is not so simple. College graduates unquestionably do better on average economically than those who don't go at all. At the extremes， those with five or more years of college earn about triple the income of those with eight or fewer years of total schooling. Taking more typical examples， one finds that those who stop their educations after eaming a four-year degree earn about 1 1/2 times as much as those who stop at the end of high school. These outcomes， however， reflect other things
besides the impact of the degree itself. College graduates are winners in part because colleges attract people who are already winners - people with enough brains and drive that they would do well in almost any generation and under almost any circumstances， with or without formal credentialing.
8 The harder and more meaningful question is whether the mediocrities who have also flooded into colleges in the past couple of generations do better than they otherwise would have. And if they do， is it because college actually made them better employees or because it simply gave them the requisite credential to get interviewed and hired? The U. S. Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that about 20o/o of all college graduates toil in fields not requiring a degree， and this total is projected to exceed 30% by the year 2005. For the individual， college may well be a credential without being a qualification， required without being requisite.
英美散文选读（一）（第二版）/新基点全国高等院校商务英语专业本科系列规划教材·人文素养子系列 [English Essay Reading(1)(Second Edition)] 下载 mobi epub pdf txt 格式
英美散文选读（一）（第二版）/新基点全国高等院校商务英语专业本科系列规划教材·人文素养子系列 [English Essay Reading(1)(Second Edition)] 下载 mobi pdf epub txt 格式
英美散文选读（一）（第二版）/新基点全国高等院校商务英语专业本科系列规划教材·人文素养子系列 [English Essay Reading(1)(Second Edition)] 下载 mobi epub pdf
英美散文选读（一）（第二版）/新基点全国高等院校商务英语专业本科系列规划教材·人文素养子系列 [English Essay Reading(1)(Second Edition)] mobi epub pdf txt 格式下载